March 15, This seems like a no-brainer, yet thousands of AP European History test takers forget about this every year.
Pott, arioeuropeo G. Ascoli, Aryan F. Japhetic and Hamitic are both obsolete, apart from occasional dated use of term "Hamito-Semitic" for the Afro-Asiatic languages. In English, Indo-German was used by J.
Prichard in although he preferred Indo-European. Indo-Germanisch became established by the works of August Friedrich Pottwho understood it to include the easternmost and the westernmost branches, opening the doors to ensuing fruitless discussions whether it should not be Indo-Celtic, or even Tocharo-Celtic.
Indo-Hittite is sometimes used for the wider family including Anatolian by those who consider that IE and Anatolian are comparable separate branches. Study methods[ edit ] The comparative method was formally developed in the 19th century and applied first to Indo-European languages.
The existence of the Proto-Indo-Europeans had been inferred by comparative linguistics as early aswhile attempts at an Indo-European proto-language reconstruction date back as far as However, by the 19th century, still no consensus had been reached about the internal groups of the IE family.
The method of internal reconstruction is used to compare patterns within one dialectwithout comparison with other dialects and languages, to try to arrive at an understanding of regularities operating at an earlier stage in that dialect.
It has also been used to infer information about earlier stages of PIE than can be reached by the comparative method. Using the method of mass comparisonthe IE languages are sometimes hypothesized to be part of super-families such as Nostratic or Eurasiatic.
Prior studies classified the European languages as Japhetic. One of the first scholars to challenge the idea of a Hebrew root to the languages of Europe was Joseph Scaliger — He identified Greek, GermanicRomance and Slavic language groups by comparing the word for "God" in various European languages.
InLeibniz applied ideas of gradualism and uniformitarianism to linguistics in a short essay. In Iceland, scholars noted the resemblances between Icelandic and English.
Gerald of Wales claimed that WelshCornishand Breton were descendants of a common source. A study of the Insular Celtic languages was carried out by George Buchanan in the 16th century and the first field study was by Edward Llwyd around He published his work in shortly after translating a study by Paul-Yves Pezron  on Breton.
This led to comparison between the various languages. For example, Filippo Sassetti reported striking resemblances between Sanskrit and Italian.The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database has information on almost 36, slaving voyages that forcibly embarked over 10 million Africans for transport to the Americas between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Selection Of 18 Research Paper Topics About European History. History students are some of the luckiest students in the entire universe.
The main reason for this is because they often are able to study things that have been in the public domain for so long. After you have chosen your topic, you can find instructions about how to develop your ideas, find a unique solution to the problem and organize your essay in "How to Write Your Problem Solution Paper.".
Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics and an interdisciplinary field of study dealing with Indo-European languages, both current and extinct. Its goal is to amass information about the hypothetical proto-language from which all of these languages are descended, a language dubbed Proto-Indo-European (PIE), and its speakers, the .
Academic papers on European History. Mexico - A Hot Spot in a Cold War A 5 page essay that focuses on Mexico's role in the cold war.
Among issues discussed is the incident of Mexican police brutality toward protesting students in Mexico City and how this incident was . Below are a list of quick review sheets on the major topics in Advanced Placement European History that you can download and print out for your own use.